Mundt T, Mack F, Schwahn C, Biffar R
Int. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants 2006 August, 21(4): 607-614
The aims of this study were to examine the long-term survival and the prosthetic treatment outcome of screw-type, tapered implants placed in a private practice setting and to explore potential risk factors of implant failures.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In this retrospective analysis of patients treated with endosseous screw-type tapered implants, data relative to implant placement and failure, implant length, location, prosthetic treatment, medical history, smoking habits, and oral health behavior were gathered by chart review and questionnaire. An oral examination was also conducted. Cumulative survival rates were estimated through Kaplan-Meier methods. Comparisons between subgroups of patients were made using the log-rank statistical test. The association between several factors and implant failures was analyzed using Cox regression analyses (random and dependent models). Differences were considered significant when P < .05.
The survival rate of 663 implants placed in 159 patients (65 men, 94 women; 80.7 % of 197 eligible patients) was 91.8 % after 120 months. Mandibular implants had a higher survival rate than maxillary implants (96 % versus 89 %, P = .011). The failure rates for implants were 15.0 % among current smokers, 9.6 % among former smokers, and 3.6 % among nonsmokers. The differences between nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers were significant (nonsmokers versus former smokers: P = .036, nonsmokers versus current smokers: P < .001, former smokers versus current smokers: P = .003). Only number of years of smoking was significantly associated with an increased risk of implant failures (P = .036 using dependent estimation; P = .004 using independent estimation). The HR increased to 6.6 for patients who had smoked for 45 years. Loosening of prosthetic components were rare (n=12). No fractures of screws or implants were found.
Higher failure rates for former smokers and a dose-response effect between duration of smoking and implant failure rates suggested that permanent tissue damage from smoking may occur in addition to immediate local and systemic effects. The frequency of prosthetic complications was comparable to other studies.
Screw-type tapered implants placed in a private dental office demonstrated a cumulative survival rate of 91.8 %. The relative risk of implant failure increased with the duration of smoking.